In a controversial decision, the U.S. Supreme Court rulef 5-4, that police can take DNA samples for people under arrest in hopes to connecting them to other crimes. With some safeguards, this can be an appropriate use of new crime-solving technology.
Previously, law enforcement could take such samples from convicted felons who have limited privacy rights. The case before the High Court was the question of whether people who have only been arrested – not convicted – also must submit to a cheek swab for testing against a nationwide database of DNA involving unsolved crimes.
In the case before the court, a Maryland suspect was arrested on an arms charge and a subsequent DNA match tied him to an unsolved rape six years earlier. The state’s Court of Appeals voided the rape conviction holding such search was a violation of the Fourth Amendment. In such cases, there has to be probable cause before a search can occur.
Prosecutors argued – and the Supreme Court majority agreed – that such sampling is yet another tool to identify an arrestee’s identity just as fingerprinting.
A notable exception came from conservative Justice Antonin Scalia who compared the practice to the colonial British use of blanket searches of the public. “I doubt that the proud men who wrote the charter of our liberties would have been so eager to open their mouths for royal inspection,” he said.
“Make no mistake about it” he wrote, “your DNA can be taken and entered into a national DNA database if you are ever arrested, rightly or wrongly, and for whatever reason.”
Barry Scheck, one of the directors of the Innocence Project, an organization that helps wrongfully convicted people clear their names through DNA analysis, presented a different slant.
“We’re all in favor of DNA databanks, and using them to exonerate the innocent and apprehend the guilty,” he told the Washington Post. But Scheck disagreed with the ruling, saying he worried the court’s reasoning could open the way for large numbers of minor offenders’ DNA profiles to be pointlessly added to databases.